A couple of weeks ago, google started to stop redirected users from Google.com to localized versions of the search engine. This rather innocuous change is likely to have effect on the way safari anti tracking protection copes with Google cookies. Indeed, Safari now deletes cookies of sites you have not interacted with over the last 24 hours . If you type Google.com and then are redirected to google.fr, you actually don’t interact with google.com. So Safari does not give Google a 24h permission to track you on other domains of the search engine.That won’t happen if Google stop redirecting users and just let them on google.com where they will interact with the search bar and other elements…
The claim about DoubleClick cookie information
One of the few protective claims Google made in its policy was that “[they] will not combine DoubleClick cookie information with personally identifiable information unless we have your opt-in consent”. Some understood that Google would not combine information from the Google Account with information from DoubleClick ad-network, but that was not the case.
Using information from the Google profile
As a matter of fact, Google has so far combined many pieces of information from its ad network with information obtained from Google profiles. Your age and gender have already been shared with DoubleClick advertisers for many months now as shown on Google Ads Setting page. At the beginning, these data were shared on an opt-in basis through the “+1 personalization page”. It was not obvious that his page controlled how information from your profile was shared with advertiser as this was only mentioned as “+1 and other profile information”.
The “+1 personalization” (see below) page has been removed when Google announced “ad endorsement” and now the URL of the page redirects to the ad-endorsement page. As a matter of fact, it is no longer possible to opt out of ads on the web be based on your Google profile without opting out of all interest based ads.
Technically, Google cannot recognize when a user visited a site web affiliated to DoubleClick because the domains associated to the cookies are different. When you’re doing a search on Google, Google reads only cookies attached to “google.com” domain, whereas on Google Display Network (i.e. the set of websites with DoubleClick ads) cookies are attached to the doubleclick.net domain. Google knows the DoubleClick cookie ID of people who visited a website on Google Content Network but it does not know their Google ID. This is problematic because when you do a search on Google, you do not reveal you DoubleClick ID but just your Google ID. So when you do a search, Google cannot know if you’ve visited a website which does retargeting.
To solve this, Google redirects your browser from the doubleclick.net domain to the google.com domain. When you visit a website which wants to retarget you, DoubleClick redirects you to google.com domain and Google adds your Google ID to the list of persons who visited the advertiser’s website. Next time you’ll do a search Google will recognize your Google ID and retarget you with ads for the website you visited. The figure bellow explains how Google records that a user visited the website ABC (you can capture the actual frames on worldstore.co.uk).
Through this process, Google associates the list of websites affiliated to Google Display Network (it means with a DoubleClick tag) you visited to your Google ID. Consequently, part your web browsing history (the part containing websites which do remarketing) is actually combined to your Google profile and you cannot review it. Notice that Google never proposed a way to know which website you visited and try to retarget you, but while Google could have claimed that your browsing history was only associated to you “anonymous” DoubleClick ID, it is now attached to your personal Google account.
Summary of what Google can combine with DoubleClick
To summarize, Google cannot combine personally identifying information from your Google account with you DoubleClick cookie information, yet it can:
– Use information from your Google account (age, gender and probably very soon a list of your interests) to personalize ads that you see on DoubleClick affiliated website
– Link visits on DoubleClick affiliated websites to your Google profile and retarget you when you do a search on Google.
“[They] don’t share personally identifiable information with advertisers.
[They] don’t allow advertisers to show ads based on sensitive information, such as those based on race, religion, sexual orientation, health or sensitive financial categories.”
In the next page, I consider how Google combines information from Google profile and DoubleClick with data obtained though Google Analytics.
Update: Facebook started to show the announced prompt and ask for user consent.
Almost a year after it removed the option for 90% of its members, Facebook informed on Wednesday the remaining 10% that they’ll remove the “Who can search my timeline by name” setting in a few days. Removing this setting si likely a violation of the 2011 FTC settlement.
Timeline concealed to the public
A month ago Facebook announced that they’ll prompt user to get their consent before removing the setting  but they finally decided to just inform users with an email and a very short notice displayed above the News Feed.
In the mail sent to its members, Facebook argues that when they created this setting “the only way to find [them] on Facebook was to search for [their ]specific name. Now, people can come across [their] Timeline in other ways: for example if a friend tags [them] in a photo, which links to [their]Timeline, or if people search for phrases like “People who like The Beatles,” or “People who live in Seattle,” in Graph Search”. However, I’m confident that some users – including me — are not tagged in public photo, do not like public content and have no friend whose “friends list” is public.
Timelines of these users will not appear in public Graph Search results Facebook and there is no public link that could be used to find them. As a matter of fact, people who are not my friends (or friends of friends) can’t even know if I have a Facebook account. As for today, the only solution to find my Facebook Timeline is to test the 1.2 billion userID numbers. In addition to be time consuming, this exhaustive search would violate Facebook Terms of Services.
Private vs Nonpublic
A Timeline page is public because any user can load its content but Timelines URLs (i.e. usernames) are not public since not anyone can find them: without the search functionality, it is not possible to retrieve the Timeline associated to a specific user. Timelines URLs are like unlisted phone numbers or Google Docs shared with “anyone with the link”. These documents may not be seen as private but I would not define them as public (i.e. I’d be unpleasantly surprised to see them used in an endorsed advertisement). I do not claim that Timelines are private, only that they are “nonpublic user information” .
Why Facebook could violate the FTC settlement
The FTC settlement does not focus on user private information but cover the entire nonpublic user information (e.g. a user ID to which access is restricted by a privacy setting). Indeed, Section II-A of the 2011 settlement requires that Facebook “prior to any sharing of a user’s nonpublic user information by [Facebook] with any third party, which materially exceeds the restrictions imposed by a user’s privacy setting (s), shall […] obtain the user’s affirmative express consent”.
Facebook will not only remove the possibility to select who can look-up timelines, they will set the setting to its default values “Everyone”. Hence, Facebook will modify settings of users who set it to a more restricted audience. Obviously the two lines message Facebook displayed and the email they sent to the affected members does not offer a valid solution to get an affirmative express consent. So Facebook will certainly violate the FTC settlement in a few days.
1) The searches that have been recorded in your Web Search History before March the 1st will be subject to this policy .
2) Advertisers could target ads based on your browsing interests and interests inferred from your Web Search History.
The Good Points
First, I have to say that Google did a remarkable job advertising the new policy: notifications are everywhere. I don’t remember any of the policy updates being that much advertised and then commented.
The really bad one
So much for the good points, now let’s discuss the policy itself. The bottom line is this policy would allow advertisers target you based on your web search profile and other interests you expressed in your emails or through your use of Google services. And this list of interests can be combined with the list of interests they built based on your DoubleClick cookie.
Google does not need our Opt-in consent to combine your web search profile to your DoubleClick cookie information. Starting March the 1st, Google could adopt a solution similar to what is deployed by Microsoft to target ads based on your search interests, although a sentence in the policy seems to prevent such use of your data:
“We will not combine DoubleClick cookie information with personally identifiable information unless we have your opt-in consent.”
In fact, it means that your Double-Click cookie will not be linked to your personally identifiable information. So Google can not put your name in front of the list of interests they inferred from your browsing behavior and will not put your name (or any other PII) in the ads you see. Because your Web Search history is likely to be unique, it identifies you and therefore can not be combined to your DoubleClick profile .
But your search profile (i.e. the list of interests inferred from your search history) is unlikely to be unique and therefore does not identify you so Google can combine it with your DoubleClick cookie information . I believe they could also include some the of search results you clicked on to retarget you.
Similarly, your age, gender and interests expressed during Gtalk and Gmail discussions (or any other interest that Google could infer but that you would not be the only one to express) could be associated to your DoubleClick cookie. If you have any suggestion to deal with these data, do not hesitate to share it.
 Google defines Personal information as information “you provide to us which personally identifies you, such as your name, email address or billing information, or other data which can be reasonably linked to such information by Google”.
Last year, I started to analyze Google Search and Google Suggest logs retention policies for the NYU Privacy Research Group meetings. To complete this analysis, I’m trying to review policies of other Google services.
‘Personal Information’ vs ‘Information we collect’
While I just started this review, I noticed that Google seems to change the name of the section describing the recorded information. This section is either called:
“Personal Information” for +1, Blogger, Buzz, Notebook, Groups, Knol, Moderator, Music, Orkut, Picasa, Power Meter, SafeBrowsing , Sites, Voice, Web History and YouTube
“Information we collect” for Advisor, Checkout, Desktop, Gears, TV, Location, Mobile, Toolbar, Trader, Web Accelerator.
My first understanding was that for services that require a Google Account to be used, Google uses the terms “Personal information” otherwise it uses “Information we collect”. But there are several exceptions. For instance, SafeBrowsing does not require an account to be used but Google TV does.
In addition, explicit references to server logs are made in these Personal Information sections while Google does not consider server logs as Personal Information (see their FAQ).
The Knol bridge
‘records information [your] account activity (e.g., storage usage, number of log-ins, actions taken), data displayed or clicked in the Knol interface […] and other log information (e.g., browser type, IP address, date and time of access, cookie ID, referrer URL). If you are logged in we may associate that information with your account.‘ [emphasis is mine]
This last sentence is unusual and suggest that if you ever logged in and visited Knol, Google can associate your IP address and Cookie IDs to your Goolge Account — and all the personal information attached to it. From that, Google can directly de-anonymized the searches you did when you were not logged in.
A policy template
This loophole is certainly not intentional; this exact sentence appears in many privacy policies . As a matter of fact, this sentence also appears in YouTube and Blogger policies. Therefore we can assume that a same template has been used for services hosting user generated content.
However there are two big differences between Knol and Youtube or Blogger:
There is no explicit mention of the server logs in these policies. For these services, Google only mention that their ‘servers automatically record information about your use of the service’.
Both Blogger and YouTube have their own domain names, meaning that cookies you send to YoutTube are different from the cookies you send when you’re visiting a Google website. Unlike these services, Knol uses Google domain name. Therefore, you send to Knol cookies that you also send to Google when you are doing a search.